Estimated reading time: 9 minutes
So you think you’d like to invest in the stock market? Stocks can be exciting, scary, fascinating, and evocative of a million other feelings. But before you get in on the trading game, it’s important to understand the basics of the stock market.
First of all, roll up your sleeves and prepare for a wild ride. Understanding the stock market can be nothing less than daunting, but if you make informed, methodical choices, the wild ride won’t be quite so harrowing.
You’ve probably heard people say the trick to the market is “buy low; sell high,” but the real tactic isn’t quite that simple. It takes a while to learn about the market so you can identify when your investment has peaked, plateaued, or (finally) stopped sinking like a stone. Whether you’re just starting in the stock market or a savvy investor, you’re still likely to experience a full ride of emotions.
Whether the market is on the rise (bullish) or if there’s a sell-off (bearish), stock trading is certainly not for the faint of heart. But even though the market often seems (and actually is) scary, the secret to success is long-term consistency and patience guided by unbiased information to help you make wise choices.
While we won’t go into all of that in one little post today, I wanted to start you out with a basic understanding of the stock market, the terminology, and how to find your comfort zone.
“Remember that the stock market is a manic depressive.” — Warren Buffett
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Preparing to Take the Stock Market Ride
You know those carnival rides that spin around and around until you turn green? Well, they have nothing on some days in the stock market. Hold on, because the ride gets bumpy!
When I used to meet with clients, I would generally get an early indication of their investment experience and comfort level with the stock market. What I’ve discovered time and time again is that clients often think they want to purchase a “hot” individual stock. Maybe they got a tip from a friend or they have heard about a company in the news and hope to make a quick buck.
In almost every case, the reality was that their interest and comfort level was really guiding them toward a mutual fund (also known as a traditional or open-ended mutual fund). Mutual funds can be a more comfortable option for less experienced investors. There’s less risk and more wiggle room.
Mutual Funds: Lower Risk with Rewards
To understand why mutual funds are often a more comfortable investment option, we should first explore the difference between an open-end mutual fund and a closed-end mutual fund.
- Open-end mutual funds: These traditional mutual funds are continually issuing and redeeming shares, providing liquidity to you, the investor. Due to this constant “openness,” there’s never a set number of shares outstanding. These funds are always changing and, thus, liquid.
- Closed-end mutual funds: The closed-end fund operates more like an individual stock and is traded on an exchange. There are a fixed number of shares offered by an investment company through an initial public offering (IPO); hence, it’s “closed.” Shares are traded on an exchange intraday, like stocks.
Several guides in my FREE resource library can help you get a better understanding of mutual funds. If you feel like your investment risk-tolerance is aligned to mutual funds, this an excellent option to explore.
With investing, it’s really all about your personal risk tolerance. Your choices range anywhere from very conservative investments to growth funds to full-on speculative investments. It’s important to identify your risk tolerance so you make an investment you are comfortable with.
“One of the funny things about the stock market is that every time one person buys, another sells, and both think they are astute.” — William Feather
Defining Investment Terms
If you feel the stock market is your preferred investment choice, then it’s essential to familiarize yourself with the terminology and background of the market. Here is a breakdown of the definitions of conservative funds through speculative funds.
Money market fund: A money market fund invests in short-term debt securities, which (usually) provide you with check-writing privileges. Money market funds are conservative investments for those with lower risk tolerance.
Income fund: An income fund provides investors with revenue (pretty straightforward). This fund is usually ideal for retirees due to its conservative nature. Generally, the closer to retirement, the more conservative you’ll want to be with your risk.
Balanced fund: Once again, the name of this type of fund is obvious. It’s a balance of a growth fund and an income fund.
Growth fund: As we move into growth funds, we also move into more significant risks. This fund is typically more diverse and offers a higher growth potential (but of course, that brings higher risk).
Specialized (sector) fund: A specialized fund invests primarily in a particular industry or geographical area. I’ll expand on this idea in my example below.
International or Global fund: International funds invest in companies located anywhere outside the country in which you, the investor, reside. The Global Fund invests in countries throughout the world, including the country where you live. Both funds tend to be very risky due to currency risk, politics, and global factors that substantially impact the fund’s value.
Hedge fund: Remember the wild ride of emotions and all the “feels” I mentioned earlier? Here it is! A hedge fund uses leverage, which means it purchases on margin options (“legalized gambling,” as I like to say), short sales, and speculative investment strategies. Hedge funds tend to do better in a bearish market. So when the market goes down, hold on tight!
Individual Stocks Versus Mutual Funds
Now that we’ve got the definitions out of the way let’s explore the difference between individual stocks and open-end (traditional) mutual funds.
Let’s say that you buy 100 shares of Caterpillar (CAT) stock. At the close of market, that individual stock is either going to close up or close down — your shares will either be worth a little more than you originally paid for them, or possibly a little less.
When you invest in a mutual fund, you aren’t subject to the fate of just one company. With mutual funds, several different stocks are “pooled” together into one mutual fund, so your risk is much lower.
In this example, if you invested in a mutual fund that included Caterpillar AND John Deere (DE), Home Depot (HD), and Lowe’s (LOW), the landscape would change. If these were all in the same mutual fund, it could be a specialized (sector) fund because they are all within a particular industry, yet also competitors. This diversity makes mutual funds less risky than owning individual stocks.
If you’re holding onto that individual Caterpillar stock and the Caterpillar plant burns down, your investment is gone. BUT if you bought into a specialized mutual fund with Caterpillar, John Deere, and the others, you’re much safer. If the Caterpillar plant burns down, your investment in that “portion” of the mutual fund went to zero, but the value of John Deere’s portion (the competitor) will most likely increase.
You can see how mutual funds play together to offer a safer, less risky investment option.
Savvy Investing is All About Consistency
As I was saying before, the secret to savvy investing is consistency. Slow and steady wins the race, and nowhere is that more true than investing.
One way to keep your investments consistent is to set up DCA. You may have heard of the term Dollar Cost Averaging (DCA), which sounds more elaborate than it is. All DCA means is that you’re investing the same dollar amount on the same date every month.
Setting up DCA is a great way to start investing since you set it up to automatically pull from your checking, savings, or money market account (basically any cash account). The investment builds up pretty quickly.
If you decide to go with an investment in mutual funds, there are some funds where you can invest as little as $100.00 a month. For example, if you want to spend $100 per month on into a balanced fund, you can set the date (like the 17th), and you’ll see the same amount withdrawn from your account monthly.
You’re investing the same dollar amount on the same date each month, but the average share price will vary from month-to-month. Maybe the average share price was $16.00, but in month-two, the average share price had increased to $17.25, and in month-three, the average share price had decreased to $15.50.
Dollar-cost averaging helps to smooth out the highs and lows of the stock market because you’re investing each month consistently. Some months, you’ll purchase fewer shares because the average share price was elevated, and in other months, you’ll buy more shares because the average share price was lower.
“The stock market is a device for transferring money from the impatient to the patient.” — Warren Buffett
Ready to Get Started?
Are you ready to get started? Hopefully, you feel a little more comfortable with the terms and basics of the stock market. A lot of it comes down to knowing when to buy and sell (and staying patient the rest of the time).
When clients ask when to buy or sell, I use this analogy to understand the highs and lows of the market. When the market is falling like a stone, I think of it as though coffee is on sale. I love coffee, so I want to stock up on as much coffee as I can when it’s on sale!
Personally, I prefer shoes first, then coffee — but I digress. If the market was running higher than usual, it’s time to sell my coffee, take my profit…and then buy more shoes!
The most important takeaway is to invest in a way that fits your risk tolerance and keeps you comfortable. If you don’t want the anxiety of a wild ride, stick to mutual funds. If you’re ready to take some risks, then investing in individual stocks is nothing less than exhilarating. Arm yourself with knowledge and understanding of the market and you’ll be ready to stand up to the bears (and the bulls)!
No price is too low for a bear or too high for a bull — Proverb
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